레이블이 Preventive KM인 게시물을 표시합니다. 모든 게시물 표시
레이블이 Preventive KM인 게시물을 표시합니다. 모든 게시물 표시

6월 28, 2011

Immunity

Immunity

Preventive medicine can be called the counterpart for treatment medicine, when dividing medical science into three parts such as fundamental medicine, clinical medicine and preventive medicine. Mainly focusing on prevention of disease, preventive medicine belongs to hygienics in western medicine. It is a field of medical science with very wide ranges that covers from prevention, early treatment to rehabilitation. At prevention stage before incidence of disease, what contemporary medicine mostly emphasizes is the strengthening of human body immunocompetence.

Immunity is the phenomenon that human body environment defenses against antigen from outside. In western medical respect, it is a process of immune system – WBC (macrophagocyte, lymphocyte), killer T cell, and so on – resists pathogenic organism.

Concept of immunity has also existed in Korean medicine in name of healthy qi(正氣) that maintains the balance of yin, yang, qi, and blood against external stimulus. Healthy qi, which is core concept in Korean medicine pathogenic theory, protects our body from external pathogen(邪氣). Pathogen, a relative concept from healthy qi, is similar to agent that causes disease when it penetrates into body.

Korean medicine considers the process of immunity as struggle between healthy qi in our body and external pathogen. Therefore if our healthy qi is strong enough, our body will be well-protected, but if not, it will become vulnerable. As a method of preventing disease, Korean medicine emphasizes life-nurturings, among which raising healthy qi to ward off pathogen is considered the most important one.

Immune process by healthy qi and defense qi

Healthy qi is the energy that protects body from pathogen. It is similar to level of immunity. We can call the state when body loses healthy qi and becomes weak 'Huh', which means deficiency. There are various states of Huh; qi deficiency, blood deficiency, yin deficiency, yang deficiency and so on.

If we loses healthy qi, we get easily infected. Defense qi circulating the body surface shows how healthy qi affects body. Defense qi is a sort of healthy qi that blocks external pathogen invasion into body. Defense qi is circulated through skin and flesh, and it protests against external pathogen. Defense qi flowing on skin prevents pathogen from getting into body and if pathogen comes into the body, defense qi sieges and blocks it. It is called 'struggle between the healthy qi and pathogenic qi', which is when pathogen is blocked by defense qi outside the body and fight with healthy qi inside body. This process can be compared with mononuclear phagocyte or macrophage process. It is like present immunity process.

≪Huangdi's Internal Classic(黃帝內徑)≫ which is one of Traditional Chinese Medicine classic books explains that heat or crassi can be made during this process. If healthy qi is defeated by pathogen, tumor, stomachache or headache appear and illness occurs.

Medicinal for strengthening the body

Generally speaking, traditional medicinal for strengthening one’s body system is called ‘tonifying and replenishing medicinal.’ The preventive meaning of this kind of medicinal is not restricted in the sense of protecting the body and filling up on healthy qi. Healthy qi indeed acts as a preventive system by holding up against external pathogen, but simultaneously fights off the external pathogen that already invaded the body. Thus tonifying medicinal can be prescribed before the occurrence of disease to help prevent it by replenishing the healthy qi, or after the outbreak to supplement the deficient state of the body and encourage the healthy qi to fight pathogens.

Tonifying and replenishing medicinal can be seen as formulas that acts to tonify yin, tonify yang, tonify qi, or tonify blood. Each type of tonifying medicinal is applied to pathological deficiency of body’s yin, yang, qi, and blood. Qi deficiency is a general term for decreased visceral and overall body function, and is often seen on patients with leucopenia, bronchial asthma, myasthenia gravis, and some types of rashes. Blood deficiency is the state in which blood flow motility is weak, and is related to symptoms such as anemia and hives. Yin deficiency is an expression for the lack of fluid, and is often matched with dryness of skin, tidal fever, and chronic rheumatism. Yang deficiency mostly refers to the insufficiency of kidney yang, and is often seen on allergic rhinitis, and chronic nephritis patients.

When one’s level of immunity is weak or hyperactive, one’s immune system is more or less malfunctioning. This not only leads the body to be easily effected to diseases, but also may trigger symptoms from self tissue damage. Many of these disease patterns correspond to deficiency symptoms from Trditional Korean medicine. So if tonifying medicinal is appropriately applied to immune system under-function, the medicinal will help treat the symptoms by immune regulatory effect.

Yang-tonifying Medicinal(補陽藥)

In Oriental Medicine, the word ‘Immunity’ was first shown in an 18th century medical book in which the word means restraint from injuries caused by disease. Broadly speaking, if immunity is considered as a prevention and treatment of all the diseases, its concept originates from ≪Huangdi's Internal Classic(黃帝內徑)≫. In appears the phrase ‘不治已病 治未病’(Treat the disease before it occurs, not after.) It is based on the prevention-centered idea, and a disease is considered as a process of struggle between a Healthy Qi and pathogens(邪氣) in the body. It was perceived that the strength of a Healthy Qi(正氣) directly determines the occurrence, advancement and change of diseases.
Because Yang(陽) means protecting the body, the meaning of Yang-tonics accords with the concept of Immunology. The action of Yang qi is needed for the circulation of blood, fluid and humor(津液) and the formation and distribution of essence flavors(正味) of five grains(五穀). The evaporation of Yang Qi is needed for mental activity and function of intestinal organs. Thus, it is thought that Yang-tonifying medicinals have an effect on increasing the level of immunity in human organisms, and they have recently been applied to many diseases.

Most of Yang-tonifying Medicinals are assigned to the kidey meridian, acting as Kidney-tonifying medicine. As an innate source, the Kidney(腎) is the base of the body's defensive power. That is, a resistance against the intrusion of exopathogens can be connected to immunology's act of defending infection. Also, the Kidney was recognized as a bone marrow producing organ, which is related to the hematogenous functions of bone-marrow and the production of immune cells.

Interestingly, many herbal medicines tonifying the kidney are known to increase immune cells. This action reinforces the function of the pituitary gland-interrenal system and strengthens the immune function.

Yang-tonifying Herbs includes Epimedii Herba, Cuscutae Semen, Cistanches Herba, Psoraleae Fructus, Cynomorii Herba, Cortex Cinnamomi, Morinda officinalis, etc.
Cervus Nippon and Psoralia Corylifolia have clinical effects on leukopenia treatment. Also, Cuscufa Chinensis, Psoralia Corylifolia and Epimedium Brevicornum activate the phagocytosis of macrophagocyte and the conversion of T cells to relieve symptoms.

Qi-tonifying Medicianl(補氣藥)

Because the spleen is an acquired source and an origin of vitality, most Qi-tonifying Herbs effect the spleen-stomach meridian. In immunity, several studies showed the spleen to be a basis of acquired constitution(後天的 體質). In Oriental Medicine, severely non-nutritious patients are diagnosised with a spleen deficiency. Their number of immunity and antibody cells are decreased and the whole immune system often shows to be lowered. Also, a patient with a spleen deficiency(脾虛) can easily get infection in the intestine or skin tissue. From this point of view, we can see that the spleen has an important effect in sustaining the body's immune system. It appeared that most of the components of Qi-tonifying medicinals have adjusted immune function.

Qi-tonifying medicines commonly contain polysaccharides a lot and it's considered that through their action, B cells and T cells can be activated, the secretion of cytokine can be increased, the capacity of macrophage can be enhanced and the productions of antibodies can be increased by them as to tonify the immunocompetence. Qi-tonifying medicines have boosting effects on lung and stomach as to strengthen our immune system. The most typical medicines contain Ginseng Radix, Pilose Asia-bell, Astragali Radix, Astractylodes Rhizoma alba and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. Especially, Water-extracted Ginseng Radix is regarded as having preventive effects on influenza and boosting our body's immune system as to enhance the effect of the vaccine against influenza.

Treatment of the disorder of the immune system.

1. Flu(Influenza)
It's hard to prevent our body from flu as the virus type is infinite and their infection process could be variable. Therefore, it's necessary to boost and maintain our immunocompetence to prevent it. 'Flu' is considered as 'Cold' in the West, similar to the fact that it is considered as 'Cold Pathogen' in the East. We can assume that flu has been considered in relation to the temperature. Epidemiological research reports that In temperate climate regions, the breaking out of flu increases in autumn and get to the highest point in winter and decreases in the spring. In tropical regions, however, it breaks out mostly at rainy season in the low temperature.

The most common virus causing cold is rhinovirus. As rhino means the nose, it is associated with runny nose which is a common symptom of cold. But this virus is very sensitive to the temperature as it can grow best when the body temperature is lower than 33 degrees celsius and the higher the temperature gets, the lower the growth of the virus. If the temperature is at 39 degrees, the growth rate is 400 times less than when it's at 33 degrees. As the result of experiments on animals, it seems that viruses causing influenza also spreads better at the lower temperature condition. In conclusion, Herbal medicines can enhance our immunocompetence for flu as they generally help the metabolism in our body as to have positive effects on the regulation of the body temperature.

In TKM, the flu is considered as 'affection by cold' or 'invasion of wind' and it's regarded that we get cold because the defensive energy called 'Defense qi' cannot protect the interstices tightly so that pathogenic wind invade in weakened part. Therefore, we have to boost the defensive energy and tighten the interstices to prevent the invasion of pathogenic energy and prevent our body from cold. Prescriptions containing medicines that tonifies lung-qi is commonly used because lung qi produces defense qi. Medicines like Okbyeongpungsan(玉屏風散) which mainly contains milk vetch root(黃芪) are commonly used. Dropping the solution of milk vetch root on the nose is considered as a good method for preventing cold. Milk vetch root increases the concentration of SlgA and lgG in mucous membranes of the surface of the nose and neutralizes the phagocytic activities of phagocytic cells. By the fact that the values of the SlgA and lgG in the serum have increased, these herbal medicines are proven to have the boosting effects on the immunocompetence.

2. Glomerular nephritis

Most cases of nephritis are caused by antigen substances in blood combining with specific antibody to form antigen-antibody compound. When this compound is excreted through glomerulus, it files up on basement membrane, activates alexin, and cause inflammatory response. Traditional Korean medicinals used in the early stages of nephritis are ‘heat-clearing and detoxicating medicinal’(淸熱解毒藥), and ‘wind-dispelling and dampness-draining medicinal’(擧風利濕藥), which restrain immune responses. By pattern identification in TKM, chronic nephritis can be traced back to malfunction of kidney-yin and kidney-yang. Based on this diagnosis, treatment should focus on tonifying kidney-yin and kidney yang to regulate immune system, and also control overactive immune response by ‘blood-activating and stasis-resolving medicinal’(活血化瘀藥) and are ‘heat-clearing and detoxicating medicinal’(淸熱解毒藥). Particularly, Tripterygium regelii Sprague, which is a medicinal material traditionally used to treat kidney related disorders, is known to have anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, and fever-reducing effects, thus suppressing B-cell actions and inducing T-cell to repress immune responses.

3. Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is often linked with mental predispositions which are generally expressed in terms such as ‘liver qi depression’(肝氣鬱滯), or ‘yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity’(陰虛陽亢). This pattern identification correspond to the modern diagnosis hat stress may cause hyperthyroidism. LATS, which is found among the blood serum of hyperthyroid patients, is a kind of immunoglobulin and is affiliated with IgG type antibody. Hyperthyroidism is often linked with mental predispositions which are generally expressed in terms such as ‘liver qi depression’(肝氣鬱滯), or ‘yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity’(陰虛陽亢). This pattern identification correspond to the modern diagnosis hat stress may cause hyperthyroidism. LATS, which is found among the blood serum of hyperthyroid patients, is a kind of immunoglobulin and is affiliated with IgG type antibody. Patients that are sorted into ‘yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity pattern’ are also often found with increased IgG/blood serum figure.

Clinically used medicinal are targeted to ‘enrich yin and tonify qi’(養陰益氣), ‘harmonize the stomach and liver’(和胃平肝), ‘dispel phlegm and resolve dampness’(祛痰化濕). Medicinal materials on such formula are Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula Nannfeldt, Angelica gigas Nakai, Paeonia lactiflora, and Leonurus sibiricus L. Especially in an experiment where hyperthyroidism-induced white mice were given the ‘enrich yin and tonify qi’ medicine ‘甲亢復方’(material: Astragalus membranaceus, Paeonia lactiflora, Leonurus sibiricus L, Coptis chinensis, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cyperus rotundus, tortoise shell), their increased blood serum cAMP content was reduced. Also, liver tissue oxygen level and water drinking amount were decreased, and abnormal changes in adrenal cortex functions were regulated. Also in studies with human subjects, patients with hyperthyroidism showed high level of cAMP in blood serum and low cGMP level. This shows that by regulating disorders in cAMP/cGMP system in hyperthyroid patients, immune malfunction can be prevented.

7월 06, 2010

Preventive Medicine For Modern Times

written by: Seonghee Joo, Seonghwan Cho, Jongwoo Kim, Nayeon Ha, YeoEun Park
edited by: YeoEun Park


Modern times breed modern diseases. While unprecedented growth of civilization set most of human race free from plague and famine, new health problems are coming into spotlight. More nutrition and less exercise led to deterioration of health, which can be loosely bound in a category of diseases called 'adult diseases.' Adult diseases, also called lifestyle diseases, include variety of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer. As many of adult diseases are caused by one's diet, stress factor and overall lifestyle, every day prevention is necessary. In this article we will discuss how Traditional Korean medicine can help prevent adult diseases such as obesity, hypertesion, diabetes, and stroke.


1. Obesity

A person with obesity is generally overweight, but a person who has lots of muscles instead of fats can also be overweight, so we define 'obesity' as a condition of an accumulated excess body fat. Body Mass Index, a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people being overweight when BMI is over thirty for western people, and over twenty-five for Asians.
Obesity is known as a direct cause for adult diseases like diabetes, stroke, hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, heart disease and is also related to arthritis, gout, infertility and menstrual irregularity. It may even trigger more serious diseases such as colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, gallbladder cancer and breast cancer, and is one of the greatest risk factors to health that shortens our life span and lowers our life quality.

(1) Dietary treatment for Obesity

Adult diseases are not individual disease to each other. Rather they are closely connected that they cause and aggravate other adult diseases. Therefore dietary treatments for them have a lot in common. Basically we need to cut back a high-salt and a high-fat diet which is wrong diet of modern people. Also roasted and fried food which is rich in carbohydrate, three-white food (white rice, white wheat, white salt), and drinking alcohol should be moderated. Instead we should plan the Mediterranean diet, which mainly consists of fruits, fishes, and vegetables. Additionally intake of potassium is recommended that it boost discharge of sodium to bring down blood pressure.
Low calorie diet containing adequate amount of essential nutrient is recommended. Fruits and vegetables, for instance beans, adlay, tomatoes, cucumber, low-fat fish, buckwheat, weed, onion, carrot and cabbage are good for obesity cure.

(2) Exercise cure for obesity

Highly intensive aerobic exercise is effective for obesity but it should not be continued after the body feels fatigue. Though exercise that lasts less than an hour has appetite-suppressing effect, exercise more than an hour reversely boost appetite, so 40 minutes-exercise for 4 times a week is recommended.
One of the traditional exercise treatments is Qigong exercise, which is descended from ancient China exercise school(養生長壽術 十勢功法道家 華山派). It is called 龍遊功(Yongyoogong, which is also called 三環功-Samhwangong, as it puts hands together and turn around three times), because its movement is quite similar to dragon’s waving. It is effective for losing unwanted weight and keeping good body shapes. Other exercises such as 按腹行法(Walking while massaging stomach), 正坐深呼吸法(Sitting up straight and deeply breathing), 香陵六合氣功(hyangnengyukkigong) are becoming accepted as being helpful on treating obesity.

(3) Medicinal Treatment for Obesity

① Bangpungtongseongsan(防風通聖散)
- Cnidium officinale 4.0, Saposhnikovia divaricata 4.0, Angelica gigas 4.0, Paeonia lactiflora 4.0, Mentha piperascens (Malinv.) Holmes 4.0, Forsythia viridissima 4.0, Ephedra sinica 4.0, Erigeron canadensis 4.0, Rheum palmatum 4.0 gypsum 4.0, Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle 4.0, Scutellaria baicalensis 4.0, Artractylodes japonica 3.0, Schizonepeta tenuifolia var. japonica 3.0, Zingiber officinale 3.0, talcum10.0, Gardenia jasminoides 3.0, Glycyrrhiza uralensis 2.0
- Used when colonic motility is too excessive, as this hyperactivity tends to cause constipation.
- Used when patients have lots of fat cells, suffer from obesity and hyperlipidemia which causes skin allergies, mucous allergies, skin diseases, hypertension, mental disorders, etc :
* Reduce the viscosity of blood
* Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic action
* Proliferate the blood circulation
* Controls autonomic nervous system
* Treats inflammation of the urinary system

- Mentha piperascens Holmes, Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle, Scutellaria baicalensis have anti-inflammatory effects.
- Forsythia viridissima, Scutellaria baicalensis, Artractylodes japonica have anti-allergic effects.
- Forsythia viridissima, Saposhnikovia divaricata, Rheum palmatum, Schizonepeta tenuifolia var. japonica, talcum have antibacterial activities as to treat the inflammation of urinary system and skin.
- Rheum palmatum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia var. japonica, Gardenia jasminoides reduces the viscosity of blood as to relieve inflammatory diseases and hypertension.
- Cnidium officinale, Gardenia jasminoides tranquilize the nerves.
- Cnidium officinale, Angelica gigas, Paeonia lactiflora proliferate the blood circulation by improving the vasomotion ability
- Erigeron canadensis, Rheum palmatum cause quick discharge of the intestinal contents as to treat the viscosity of blood caused by intestinal stagnation of the contents.
- Ephedra sinica, Paeonia lactiflora, Zingiber officinale excrete impurities in interstitial cells by letting the patient sweat.
- This herbal medicine often used for person who has excessive subcutaneous fat around the belly button. It is effective for obese patients with constipation and hypertension as it eliminates unnecessary wastes through the secretion of sweat, urine and feces.


② Chegameuiin-tang(體減薏苡仁湯)
- Coix lacryma-jobi 8g, Rehmannia glutinosa 7g, Sinomenium acutum 4g, Glycyrrhiza uralensis ․ Astragalus membranaceus ․ Dioscorea batatas ․ Akebia quinata ․ Alisma canaliculatum ․ Magnolia obovata ․ Polyporus umbellatus ․ Juncus effusus ․ Raphanus sativus ․ Angelica gigas ․ Epimedium koreanum ․ Lycium chinense Miller ․ Cornus officinalis 2.5g each, Cnidium officinale ․ Carthamus tinctorius ․ Caesalpina sappan 1.5g each.
- This herbal medicine is effective for generally healthy, yet obese patients who have great appetite, sleep much and hate moving their body.
- It treats these patients by improving blood circulation, reducing the appetite, improving endurance, promoting fat decomposition and smooth discharge of urine and feces.


(4) Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Obesity
Meridians are pathway for qi and blood, the principle constituents of human activity. They are affiliated with organ in internal part of body, and distributed all over the external part. Traditional Korean medicine defines heath as the state in which qi, blood, and body fluids are appropriately circulating. Acupuncture and moxibustion can stimulate certain points on meridians, thus controlling overall energy and metabolism system, and cure diseases. Historical books on medicine show that 'life-nurturing moxibustion'(養生灸), by applying moxa on certain areas during healthy state, can prevent illness and invigorate human body.
It has been studied that stimulation by acupuncture or chuna may promote metabolism and regulate endocrine system. These functions lead to effects similar to lipolysis and thus help reduce body fat. Chuna or massage basically stimulate the body in the same way as acupuncture, and also has weight reducing effect. Traditionally used body area for weight reduction is the back. Stimulation of he back induce fat reducing effect on the whole body. The back is seen as the area where body's Yang qi is concentrated, and governor vessel, which is the meridian that controls the overall yang meridians, passes through the back. Modern studies show that brown fat cells are amassed on the back. Massage on the back stimulated heat production of the brown fat cells, and lets the excess energy to be consumed.


2. Diabetes

Diabetes is called ‘wasting-thirst’(So-gal) in Korean medicine. It is true that diabetes is often caused by stress, lack of exercise, high-calories, fats and proteins diet. Diabetes, however, can also be occurred by specific gene deficiency and also by pancreas operation, infection and medicine. People who have diabetes can easily have obesity, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia, and in treatment doctors must take those other factors into consideration.
When diabetes is not severe, there are no special symptoms, but usually when blood glucose is high, patients feel thirsty, drink lots of water, eat lots of meals but lose weight and feel lethargy, and urinate more.

(1) Dietary treatment for Diabetes

Being overweight easily leads to wasting-thirst, therefore fatty food, roasted or fried food, high-carbohydrate food which causes obesity should be avoided. Additionally, drinking alcohol and eating sweet fruits should also be kept off. Instead low-salt diet is strongly recommended. In this way, diabetes can be prevented without any medication treatments.

(2) Exercise & Mental cure for diabetes

“Treatise on the Pathogenesis and Manifestations of All Diseases”(諸病源候論), Korean medicine classic emphasized importance of proper exercise, and says that we should walk 125~1000 steps before taking a meal. Another classic “Medical Secrets of an Official”(外臺秘要) suggests to concrete example of abstentious life style; exercises should not be too intensive, take a walk to digest after having a meal, prohibits late-night meal, and having small amount of meal at once but for several times.
Mental stress like anger, agony and depression forms heat inside the body that induces wasting-thirst. Accordingly, at the early period, wasting-thirst can be treated if one suppresses greed and worry. However, once this moderation is neglected, even the best medication and doctor can’t treat wasting-thirst.

(3) Medicinal Treatment for Diabetes

① Yukmiziwhangwhan-gagambang(六味地黃丸加減方)
- 生地黃(Rehmanniae Radix), 山藥(Dioscoreae Rhizoma), 石膏(Gypsum Fibrosum) 10g each, 牧丹皮(Moutan Cortex), 瓜蔞根(Trichosanthis Radix), 麥門冬(Liriopes Radix), 山茱萸(Corni Fructus) 6g each.
- Boil down the above herbs as a pack after meals, two times a day.
- Rehmannia Radix reduces the blood sugar to low level, nourishes the blood and strengthens the heart.
- Gypsum Fibrosum, Liriopes Radix relieves thirst, and treats eating disorder and bulimia.
- Moutan Cortex and Trichosanthis Radix soothes the skin inflammation caused by diabetes, reduces fever, and relieves thirst.
- Corni Fructus reduces polyuria, and Dioscoreae Rhizoma relieves thirst along with Gypsum Fibrosum, Liriopes Radix, and Trichosanthis Radix.

② Gami-Jeonssibaekchulsan(加味錢氏白朮散)
- 葛根(Puerariae Radix) 2don, 人蔘(Ginseng Radix), 白朮(Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma), 白茯苓(Poria), 藿香(Agastachis Herba), 甘草(Glycyrrhizae Radix) 1don each, 木香(Aucklandiae Radix), 柴胡(Bupleuri Radix), 枳殼(Aurantii Fructus Pericarpium), 五味子(Schizandrae Fructus) 5poon each.
- It treats decreased appetite from wasting-thirst and the frequent feeling of starvation from wasting-middle(消中).

(4) Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Diabetes

The foremost cause of diabetes might be spleen, but the root of the matter lies in kidney. Spleen can only function properly when it is heated from the yang qi of the kidney. Also it is important for the lung to be lubricated by the yin fluid of kidney to smoothly function. This is why in treatment of diabetes, traditional korean medicine first applies acupuncture on the BL23(腎兪穴) of the back and waist area. Because kidney malfunction is often caused by liver disorders, BL18(肝兪穴), where qi of the liver assembles, is also used for acupuncture and moxibustion. Then BL13(肺兪穴) BL20(脾兪穴) is treated to cure the liver and spleen. Finally acupuncture and moxibustion is applied to CV12(巨闕穴), where qi of the heart accumulates on the upper abdomen, and all five viscera is treated. This not only cures diabetes but also prevents the disease itself or further complications.
An important characteristic of oriental medicine is that it emphasizes to tonify and strengthen the body before directly treating the pathogen. Thus treatment of diabetes includes acupuncture points that boost the healthy qi of the body. LR14(期門穴) regulates spleen. The spleen is considered as a digestive organ, and it is said to provide other visceral organs with the qi through digestion. ST36(足三里) on both legs, LI11(曲池) on both arms, and CV21(中脘穴) of the stomach are treated to control the balance of qi and blood. Also the source qi is strengthened through treatment of CV6(氣海穴), which is located below the navel and is called 'sea of qi', and CV4(關元穴), where the origin qi is gathered.

3. Hypertension

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is the state when a person's systolic blood pressure is over 140 mmHgm, or diastolic blood pressure is over 90 mmHg for adults over eighteen. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure on blood vessels when the heart contracts and pushes blood out. Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure on blood vessles when the heart expands and takes blood in.
Hypertension can be divided into two types. One is secondary hypertension, which is hypertension when a direct causative disorder is known, and the other is essential hypertension whose cause is not found. Ninety-five percent of all high blood pressure patients are suffering from essential hypertension. The fundamental cause of essential hypertension is not specific, but it seems to be caused by increase of cardiac output, a amount of blood pushed by heart during one minute or an increase of tip vessel resistance. Dangerous factors related to high blood pressure include family history, drinking, smoking, aging, lack of exercise, obesity, salty diet, and stress.

(1) Dietary treatment for Hypertension

Hypertension and arteriosclerosis are often due to lack of blood circulation, which is caused by excessive intake of salt and fat. Hence, diet has to be focused on promoting blood circulation and reducing intake of salt. Lowering blood pressure treatment is probably ineffective unless diet is improved. Consequently, planning proper diet is the very start of all cures.

(2) Exercise cure for hypertension

Qigong exercise like tai chi chuan is highly recommended. It moves body slowly , and doesn’t put stress on joint but strengthen cardiovascular system. Besides its effect of enhancing muscles, relaxing joints and making blood circulation smoothly, it is said to let the practicer absorb energy from Nature, remove pathogen and strengthen danjeon. Also tai chi chuan reconciles body and qi, it improves arteries and capillaries at the same time.

(3) Medicinal Treatment for Hypertension

① Samhwangsasim-tang(三黃瀉心湯)
- Rheum palmatum(大黃) 7.5g, Scutellaria baicalensis(黃芩) 3.75g, Coptis chinensis(黃連) 7.5g
- Slice the medicine to make 1 dose and soak it in 1 cup of boiling water. Wring it after a long while, discard the solids, and then drink warm over 2 sessions.
- Rheum palmatum(大黃) reduces the viscosity of blood by purgative action(瀉下作用).
- Scutellaria baicalensis(黃芩) is effective for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
- Coptis chinensis(黃連), Scutellaria baicalensis(黃芩) relieve the hyperemia of blood vessels.
- Coptis chinensis(黃連), Scutellaria baicalensis(黃芩) have central nervous system depressant effect.

② Hwangryunhaedok-tang(黃蓮解毒湯)
- Coptis chinensis(黃連) 1.5g, Phellodendron amurense(黃柏) 1.5g, Scutellaria baicalensis(黃芩) 3g, Gardenia jasminoides(梔子) 2g
- Coptis chinensis(黃連), Scutellaria baicalensis(黃芩), Gardenia jasminoides(梔子) have a sedation effect.
- Coptis chinensis(黃連), Phellodendron amurense(黃柏), Scutellaria baicalensis(黃芩) relieve the congestion of blood, reduce the viscosity of blood and have antibacterial activities.
- As Hwangryunhaedok-tang(黃蓮解毒湯) can treat the hyperemia and inflammation of blood vessels and tranquilize the nerves, it can be used for the symptoms like the hyperemia, anxiety neurosis or inflammatory diseases.

(4) Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Hypertension

Acupuncture and moxibustion depend on natural healing power of human body to improve functions of circulation system, and can thus prevent hypertension.
Treatment principles on hypertenstion is to 'pacify the liver to subdue Yang' (平肝鎭陽), and usually add or omit allopathic treatment according to symptoms. Some studies show that acupuncture is effective on patients with essential hypertension. WFAS(World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Society) has issued experimental date that shows by applying ear acupuncture, participants' blood pressure can drop by minimum of 10mmHG to maximum 20 to 30mmHG.
Common use acupuncture points on hypertensions are: GB20(風池), LI11(曲池), ST36(足三里), LR3(太衝)

4. Stroke

Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is a long lasting disorder which is caused by partial or overall injury of the brain. In Oriental Medicine, it is called 'wind stroke' or simply 'wind', but 'wind' contains diseases not classified as stroke in Western medicine. Therefore it is better to distinguish stroke and wind stroke.
Ischemic stroke occurs when a brain blood vessel is blocked or when a brain blood vessel is torn and the blood permeates through brain tissues. Because the brain is an essential organ that controls all human behavior, various symptoms happen depending on which part of brain is damaged. The most common symptoms are paralysed arm and leg on one side of the body, sensory disorder, not specific pronunciation, feeling dizziness and other discomforts.

(1) Dietary treatment for stroke

As all other adult diseases, stroke prevention also requires large amount of potassium-rich food based on a low-salt and a low-fat diet so that blood can flow smoothly. To reduce calories, meal portion should be cut down to 80% of before. Dietary fibers and water intake must be increased but high-cholesterol foods like mushrooms, seaweeds and beans must be avoided.

(2) Medicinal Treatment for Stroke

① Ohyaksungisan(烏藥順氣散)
- 麻黃(Ephedrae Herba)·陳皮(Citri Pericarpium)·烏藥(Linderae Radix) 6g each, 川芎(Chidii Rhizoma)·白芷(Angelicae Dahuricae Radix)·白殭蠶(Bombycis Corpus cum Batryticatus)·枳殼(Aurantii Fructus Pericarpium)·桔梗(Platycodi Radix) 4g each, 乾薑(Zingiberis Rhizoma Siccus) 2g, 甘草(Glycyrrhizae Radix) 1.2g, 生薑(Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens) 3, 大棗(Zizyphi Fructus) 2
- Boil down the above herbs as a pack three times a day, 1 hour after meals.
- It controls qi to prevent and treat stroke. Also, it is good for people who are worried about having stroke due to physical disharmony and mental tension, since stroke seizures are prevented when qi communicates smoothly. For stroke and all of the signs of the disease, these herbs should be taken to communicate qi in advance, along with the following prescribed herbs. It is good to take this medicine when there is pain, a sense of illness somewhere in the body, or impediment in speech.

②Sopung-tang(疎風湯)
- 羌活(Notopterygii Rhizoma)·防風(Saposhnikovia Radix)·當歸(Angelicae Gigantis Radix)·川芎(Cnidii Rhizoma)·赤茯苓(Poria)·陳皮(Citri Pericarpium)·半夏(Pinelliae Rhizoma)·烏藥(Linderae Radix)· 柏脂(Thujae Resina), 香附子(Cyperi Rhizoma) 3.2g each, 桂枝(Cinnamomi Ramulus)·細辛(Asari Herba Cum Radix)·甘草(Glycyrrhizae Radix) 1.2g each, 生薑(Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens) 3 pieces.
- Boil down the above herbs as a pack three times a day, 1 hour after meals.
- It is prescribed when there are symptoms of a light stroke disease including the numbness at the end of four limbs.
- The name Sopung implies that the medicine dispels the wind from the body.

(3) Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Stroke

Cerebrovascular disorders, commonly called stroke, are often caused by hypertension. Traditional Korean medicine has long shown strongness on chronic stroke, half-body paralysis, dementia, and inappetance. It is also particularly effective for aftereffect of stroke. Traditional Korean medicine doctors diagnose 'phlegm-dampness' or 'phlegm-heat' as some of the pathogens of stroke. In those two cases, it is more important to unblock the meridian rather than using restorative herbal medicine. This is where acupuncture and moxibustion can step in as appropriate preventive treatment for stroke. Acupuncture and moxibustion have no side effects when used together with Western medicine treatment or herbal medicine. Also because acupuncture-moxibustion regulates autonomic nerve, it alleviates general symptoms and induce functional recovery. Thus acupuncture and moxibustion treatment are effectively used for prevention against stroke by regulating blood pressure or preventing relapse.

1월 27, 2010

How to prevent H1N1?

 



How to prevent influenza H1N1 by Korean Medicine?





by Ji Myung Woo


(Grade 4, Staff Writer)


Young Kyun Moon


(Grade 3, Assistant Writer)


Ha Na Yeon, Jong Woo Kim


(Grade 2, Assistant Writer)


 


How can we fight against influenza H1N1? More than 300,000 people worldwide have been confirmed as cases of pandemic influenza H1N1. While the number of confirmed cases increases continuously, the supply of Tamiflu, treatment for influenza H1N1, is not enough in many countries. Then, what can we do with limited supply of Tamiflu? The best way is to take measures to prevent influenza H1N1. World Health Organization(WHO) had set guidelines to prevent the spread of influenza H1N1. (You can refer to it in later part of this article.) Still better way is to use Korean medicinal methods to prevent and treat influenza H1N1.



How better is oriental medicine in treating/preventing H1N1?


In international seminar about influenza H1N1 held recently in South Korea, the director of Chinese Medicinal Science reported that out of 10221 confirmed cases of influenza H1N1, 6098 patients were cured completely by using Chinese medicine and there was no case of death so far. Chinese government had set guidelines for treatment of influenza H1N1. Chinese doctors should use Chinese medicine for early phase of H1N1 and for serious cases, doctors should use Chinese medicine and Western medicine simultaneously. The average treatment period using Chinese medicine is about 3-5 days. The treatment efficacy is similar to that of Tamiflu while the cost of Chinese medicinal treatment is about 1/7 lower than using Tamiflu. Furthermore, there was no case of side effect. Dean of College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University asserted that "Illici Veri Fructus (八角), an ingredient of Tamiflu, have been used by KM doctors broadly."



How to prevent influenza H1N1 by Korean Medicine?



There are three Korean medicinal methods to prevent influenza H1N1.


The first method is simple. Keep away from pathogen(避邪). This method is almost the same as the one that WHO recommends. Primary preventive method is to avoid pathogen(邪氣) as much as you can.


The second method is life nurturing (養生). In Korean medicine, illness is process of struggle between the healthy qi and pathogenic qi (正邪相爭). Person with strong healthy qi can remain healthy even after exposure to pathogenic qi. In other words, person with weak healthy qi is vulnerable to illness. Life nurturing can be enhancing healthy qi or maintaining healthy qi. Life nurturing in this method is to maintain healthy qi to prevent an illness. The basic idea of this method is to avoid food and places that can damage healthy qi. 1. Eat clean and warm food. Avoid eating cold food. 2. Avoid cold places. 3. Wear appropriate clothes according to temperature.


The third method is to reinforce the healthy qi (扶正). This is mainly done by taking Korean medicine. The president of Korean Medical Association of Professor of Lung Internal Medicine asserted that "Frequent water intake is very important to prevent influenza. Also, concoction including ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus), date (Zizyphi Fructus), and field mint (Menthae Herba) is effective in preventing influenza.


There are also many other ways to prevent influenza in Korean medicinal classic Dongeuibogam.


-Powder realgar (石雄黃) and apply to nose.


-Boil Styrax Big Pill (Sohaphyang-won) and use the steam to prevent influenza.


-Take Powder of Rhizoma Cyperi and Folium Perillae


-Take Jeong-gi-san(正氣散)


-Take Doso-eum(屠蘇飮)


-Take Chilmuljeok-san (七物赤散)


-Take Antiphilogistic Powder of Herba Schizonepetae and Radix Saposhnikoviae (荊防敗毒散)



WHO guidelines to prevent H1N1



The main route of transmission of the new influenza A(H1N1) virus seems to be similar to seasonal influenza, via droplets that are expelled by speaking, sneezing or coughing. You can prevent getting infected by avoiding close contact with people who show influenza-like symptoms (trying to maintain a distance of about 1 metre if possible) and taking the following measures:



-avoid touching your mouth and nose;


-clean hands thoroughly with soap and water, or cleanse them with an alcohol-based hand rub on a regular basis (especially if touching the mouth and nose, or surfaces that are potentially contaminated);


-avoid close contact with people who might be ill;


-reduce the time spent in crowded settings if possible;


-improve airflow in your living space by opening windows;


-practise good health habits including adequate sleep, eating nutritious food, and -keeping physically active.