7월 18, 2011

4. The difference of System between Korean medicine and Traditional Chinese medicine







Korean medicine and Traditional Chinese medicine have considerable differences and by making clear the differences between Korean medicine and Traditional Chinese medicine, we can suggest the characteristics and strengths of the oriental medicine. The difference of System between Korean medicine and Traditional Chinese medicine is the main cause to make this current circumferences of two medicines. So this subject is quite a significant topic but the system of medicine has various subjects, for example, the license system, academic system and etc. Among this matters, we suggest the field of license, research, academic affairs and administration.

1) The License System
The main difference between Korean medicine(From now on, we call Korean medicine KM.) and Traditional Chinese medicine(From now on, we call Traditional Chinese medicine TCM.) is licensing system. Licensing system of KM is the medical system that has two kinds of doctors, KM doctor and Western doctor. In comparison, Licensing system of TCM is the special medical system that has 3 sorts of doctors, Western doctor, TCM doctor and integrative doctor of traditional Chinese and Western medicine.
After liberation in South Korea, there were some problems in relation to the medical situation. For example, the quality of medical treatment was so poor and the medical law of Japanese imperialism was still alive. So Intellectuals argued for the new laws of medical system. Since 1948, some lawmakers had attempted to make a new medical law at the Constituent Assembly but there were considerable disagreements between KM doctors and Western doctors. However, KM had to be continued and specified in the law considering historical, economic, social and academic parts and the future medical development. For example, KM had significant public support socially. So, in 1952, the national medical law stated that KM doctor has an equal treatment and right with Western doctor was passed and the KM doctor was institutionalized since then.
Now, in South Korea, there are 11 colleges of Oriental medicine(a two years' preparatory course and a four years' regular course) and 1 national graduate school of Korean medicine. In addition, about 700-800 KM doctors are produced every year by passing national medical examination only. In 2010, the total number of KM doctors is 16156 and in 2005, there are 146 KM hospitals that have more than 9000 bed and there are also 9765 KM clinics. KM plays a leading role in Public Health at present.

The licensing system of TCM is lead by the government of China and especially, a special medical system such as integrative doctor of traditional Chinese and Western medicine was established by orders of Mao Zedong. In Qing Dynasty Period, there were considerable attempts to integrate Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine and such attempts had lasted since foundation of China. In 1956, Mao said that we had to make our integrated and new medicine by combining knowledge of TCM and Western medicine. This mention gave the intellectual aims to integrate TCM and Western medicine. Since then, integrative doctors of traditional Chinese and Western medicine appeared by the course for TCM doctors to study Western medicine that had a two years' training program. After the Cultural Revolution, by stating the sentence, "We will develop modern medicine and TCM", this specific medical licence system that has 3 sorts of doctors appeared and all of the hospital have had both TCM and Western medical clinic.
The education of TCM is lead by the government of China as expected. There are 29 educational institutes of TCM or colleges of TCM established by the government of China. Also, there are Faculties of TCM in 11 colleges of medicine. The period of course in educational institute of TCM is 5 years. At present, there are 17 numbers of laboratories of integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine and about 40 hospitals of integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Also, there are 40 courses of doctor and 87 courses of master on integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine and by this support and various courses, there are more than 60 thousand integrative doctors of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in China. In 2005, 3009 hospitals of TCM and 716 clinics about TCM are existed.

2) The Field of Research
The study of KM is lead by medical societies and the research of TCM is lead by the laboratories established by government of China.
Korean oriental medical society plays the most important role on study of KM. This society is an organization of KM comprised of a total of 43 departments. It works to support education, researches and conferences of KM and 43 departments perform further study of KM relevant to the field of study.
The Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine is a national hub research institution for KM established in 1994. This Institute works for scientification, standardization and globalization on KM. To explain concretely, It has undertaken a variety of KM-based researches, KM-based therapies, policy research, research on the history of KM and etc.

The study of TCM is lead by many research institutes relevant to a variety of fields of TCM found by the China government. To support TCM, the government established the department of state control for TCM in 1986 and has founded about 170 laboratories for TCM. In this institutes, there are considerable study on TCM theory and clinical cases and by this studies, TCM has developed at a rapid pace. The China Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the largest and oldest research institute of TCM, was found in 1955 and it works for research, education, treatment of TCM. It is under direct control by the Medical Department of the government. Also, it has two hospitals for clinical research in Beijing such as XIYUAN hospital and GUANG'ANMEN hospital.

3) Academic Affairs
comparison 1 : Curriculum of Fundamental Subjects; Oriental Medicine
Different of South Korea and China can found at Preventive medicine, Oriental philosophy, Oriental physiology, Oriental pathology, Oriental diagnostics and etc. Oriental preventive medicine at South Korea's college of oriental medicine take parts like quit smoking, prevent of paralysis, qiqong therapy, four phase health care and before and after child-birth care. Oriental philosophy teaches an ideology of eastern with various viewpoints , which is foundation of Oriental medicine. Oriental physiology, Oriental pathology and Oriental diagnostics are systematic applied of Physiology, Pathology and Diagnostics in Oriental medicine. In China, they are not an independent subjects, included in fundamental of TCM.
College of TCM(China) and College of Oriental medicine(South Korea) are have similar curriculum like Chinese literature, Introduction to Oriental medicine, Chinese language, History of Oriental medicine, Original text of Oriental medicine, Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Prescriptionology, Herbal Pharmacology and etc. This similarity can be understanded that learn for Yin-yang theory, Five-phase theory and etc.
Subjects that only learned in China are TCM of Senile disease, TCM of oncology, TCM of food and nutrition science. In Korea, senile disease and oncology are not integrated subject. Food and nutrition science is not studied in College of Oriental medicine but studied in College of Food and nutrition.

comparison 2 : Curriculum of Fundamental Subjects; Western Medicine
Only Subject that South Korea's College of Oriental medicine studies and College of TCM has not studies are below.
Biochemistry and practice, Immunology, Forensicmedicine, Radiology, Psychology, Organic chemistry, Clinical Pathology and Medicinal Phytology.
College of TCM has same curriculum of subjects below.
Embryology, Anatomy, Microbiology, Physiology, Pathology, Histology, Pharmacology and Diagnostics.
But in China, seems to they don't give weight on that subjects.
Parasitology is only educated in China. Parasitology is study of parasite that closely related with human.

comparison 3 : Curriculum of Clinical Subjects
South Korea and China's Common clinical subjects are only Oriental Internal Medicine, Acupuncture and Moxibustion and Oriental Gynecology.
The distinction of curriculum between South Korea and China are Four phase Medicine and Oriental Psychiatry. Oriental Psychiatry subject that thinking mentalillness connect with organs.

comparison 4 : Total Training Session

South Korea's Universities are train 2000 hours more than China's College. Fundamental of Oriental Medicine is almost same but Western Medicine is absolutely short. Because China's educational system is quinquennial but South Korea's system is sexennial. Also China don't weigh on study of Western Medicine.

4) Administration

Medical care facilities in Korea account for 20% of all health care facilities and there are private TKM hospitals and TKM University hospitals. Based on the research at June, 2010, the number of clinics in Korea is 11,968 and that of Oriental hospital is about 800.

�� Reference : Health and Human Services(2006) "Yearbook of Health and Welfare"
Chinese Ministry of Health(2006) "China Health Statistics Yearbook"

The proportion of TCM medical facilities in China is about 1.3% of all health care facilities. There are 'the hospitals' that have inpatient beds and 'the clinics' that have no inpatient beds. 'TCM Hospital', 'Integrative Hospital' and 'National Hospital' are hospitals there are inpatient beds. Also, 'TCM Clinic', 'Integrative Clinic' and 'National Clinic' are clinics there are no inpatient beds. 'Integrative Hospital' and 'Integrative Clinic' are the places where cooperative care of Western and Chinese medicine is primarily performed.



�� Reference : Health and Human Services(2006) "Yearbook of Health and Welfare"
Chinese Ministry of Health(2006) "China Health Statistics Yearbook"

In China, opposed to Korea, the cooperative care of Western and Chinese medicine is active taking up 33% in all health care. So, there are about 30 thousands in China but 70 in Korea who are licensed with both Western and Chinese Medicine doctor. Concerning the population of each country, the number of doctors who have both Western and Chinese/Korean Medicine licenses in China is 20 times more than in Korea.

�� Reference : Health and Human Services(2006) "Yearbook of Health and Welfare"
Chinese Ministry of Health(2006) "China Health Statistics Yearbook"

Compared to TKM Universitiy Hospitals in Korea, TCM Hospitals in China are larger and have more long-term inpatient treatments. In 2005, the number of inpatient beds in TCM Hospitals is 8.6% of all inpatient beds in increasing tendency but that of inpatient beds in TKM Hospitals is 2.4% in decreasing tendency.


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